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Extra resources for Genetics: A Conceptual Approach
15. Metaphase I is initiated while homologous pairs of chromosomes align alongside the metaphase plate (see determine 2. 15). A microtubule from one pole attaches to 1 chromosome of a homologous pair, and a microtubule from the opposite pole attaches to the opposite member of the pair. Anaphase I is marked via the separation of homologous chromosomes. the 2 chromosomes of a homologous pair are pulled towards contrary poles. even supposing the homologous chromosomes separate, the sister chromatids stay hooked up and go back and forth jointly. In telophase I, the chromosomes arrive on the spindle poles and the cytoplasm divides. Meiosis II The interval among meiosis I and meiosis II is interkinesis, during which the nuclear membrane re-forms round the chromosomes clustered at every one pole, the spindle breaks down, and the chromosomes chill out. those cells then go through prophase II, during which the occasions of interkinesis are reversed: the chromosomes recondense, the spindle re-forms, and the nuclear envelope once more breaks down. In interkinesis in a few forms of cells, the chromosomes stay condensed, and the spindle doesn't holiday down. those cells movement at once from cytokinesis into metaphase II, which has similarities to metaphase of mitosis: the person chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate, with the sister chromatids dealing with contrary poles. In anaphase II, the kinetochores of the sister chromatids separate and the chromatids are pulled to contrary poles. each one chromatid is now a special chromosome. In telophase II, the chromosomes arrive on the spindle poles, a nuclear envelope re-forms round the chromosomes, and the cytoplasm divides. The chromosomes sit back and aren't any longer noticeable. the most important occasions of meiosis are summarized in desk 2. 2. desk 2. 2 significant occasions in every one level of meiosis level Meiosis I Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Cytokinesis Interkinesis Meiosis II Prophase II* Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Cytokinesis significant occasions Chromosomes condense, homologous chromosomes synapse, crossing over happens, the nuclear envelope breaks down, and the mitotic spindle types. Homologous pairs of chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate. the 2 chromosomes (each with chromatids) of every homologous pair separate and stream towards contrary poles. Chromosomes arrive on the spindle poles. The cytoplasm divides to supply cells, every one having part the unique variety of chromosomes. In a few different types of cells, the spindle breaks down, chromosomes chill out, and a nuclear envelope re-forms, yet no DNA synthesis occurs. Chromosomes condense, the spindle varieties, and the nuclear envelope disintegrates. person chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate. Sister chromatids separate and circulation as person chromosomes towards the spindle poles. Chromosomes arrive on the spindle poles; the spindle breaks down and a nuclear envelope re-forms. The cytoplasm divides. *Only in cells during which the spindle has damaged down, chromosomes have cozy, and the nuclear envelope has re-formed in telophase I.